National medical specialty societies as well as organizations representing other members of the clinical care team are working with the ABIM Foundation and Consumer Reports to help providers, patients and other health care stakeholders think and talk about overuse of health care resources in the United States.

Participating clinician groups are asked to:

  • Create list of practices that are overused, following these guidelines:
    • Practices should be used frequently and/or carry a significant cost.
    • There should be generally-accepted evidence to support each recommendation.
    • Each item should be within the purview and control of the organization’s members.
    • The process should be thoroughly documented and publicly available upon request.
  • Review and update list on an annual basis to ensure that it continues to reflect the best evidence; in addition, review and update list as needed upon publication of new evidence that contradicts one or more society recommendations.

Consumer Reports works with with many of the specialty society partners to develop patient-friendly materials from the lists of recommendations and disseminate them to consumers through a network of Choosing Wisely consumer partners.

ABIM Foundation

Choosing Wisely® is part of a multi-year effort of the ABIM Foundation, along with its partners, to help physicians be better stewards of finite health care resources. It continues the principles and commitments of promoting justice in the health care system through a fair distribution of resources set forth in Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter, which states: “While meeting the needs of individual patients, physicians are required to provide health care that is based on the wise and cost-effective management of limited clinical resources.”

Since 1999, the ABIM Foundation has worked toward its mission of advancing medical professionalism into clinical policy and practice. Our work is an ongoing, collaborative process, engaging the health care community—including physicians and physician leaders, medical trainees, consumer organizations and patients, delivery system leaders, payers and policy makers—to build a shared understanding of professionalism and actively advance the tenets of professionalism in practice.

Learn more about who we are, connect with ABIM Foundation on Facebook, Twitter and subscribe to our YouTube channel.

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) is a professional organization with more than 6,500 members in the United States, Canada and 72 other countries. This membership includes allergist/immunologists, other medical specialists, allied health and related health care professionals dedicated to the advancement of the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology for optimal patient care. The AAAAI is honored to participate as a partner in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. This campaign is a natural extension of our organization’s ongoing commitment to empowering physicians and patients with the information they need to make evidence-based decisions regarding the diagnosis, treatment and management of allergic and immunologic diseases. Our commitment is met through the provision of cutting-edge educational opportunities; practice improvement initiatives and partnerships; leadership in the development of related guidelines, statements and practice parameters; and an award-winning website that serves as a valuable resource for professionals and patients alike.

American Academy of Clinical Toxicology

The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) is proud to participate in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. Founded in 1968, the AACT is a multidisciplinary organization uniting scientists and clinicians in the advancement of research, education, prevention, and treatment of diseases caused by chemicals, drugs and toxins. Given the vast and growing array of occupational, environmental and pharmaceutical poisonings, the increased awareness of personal health and environmental exposures, and the availability of alternative therapies it is essential that patients have informed conversations with their providers regarding both the diagnosis of suspected poisoning and the most appropriate treatment options once that diagnosis has been confirmed. Choosing Wisely is an extension of positions held by the AACT and publications in our highly cited and peer reviewed journal Clinical Toxicology that focus on optimal testing and treatment strategies for suspected poisoning. We enthusiastically support the ABIM Foundation’s Choosing Wisely initiative and are honored to be able to participate.

American Academy of Dermatology

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) is proud to be a partner in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. With a membership of more than 17,000 physicians worldwide, the Academy is committed to: advancing the diagnosis and medical, surgical and cosmetic treatment of the skin, hair and nails; advocating high standards in clinical practice, education, and research in dermatology; and supporting and enhancing patient care for a lifetime of healthier skin, hair and nails. Optimizing the quality of dermatology patient care is one of the AAD’s key priorities. The AAD also supports the evidence-based practice of dermatology by developing clinical practice guidelines, measures and Appropriate Use Criteria (AUCs). The AAD’s participation in the Choosing Wisely campaign supports its commitment to providing the most appropriate, cost-effective, evidence-based treatment of skin, hair and nail conditions and allows for a more meaningful dialogue between dermatologists and patients.

American Academy of Family Physicians

The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) is proud to be a partner in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. Founded in 1947, the AAFP represents 100,300 physicians and medical students nationwide. It is the only national medical society devoted solely to primary care. Family physicians provide more care for America’s underserved and rural populations than any other medical specialty. Family medicine’s cornerstone is an ongoing, personal patient-physician relationship focused on integrated care. The AAFP strongly supports the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model of care. Care provided in this fashion encourages both doctors and patients to choose wisely when it comes to diagnostic tests, treatments and procedures. The PCMH model improves quality of care and medical outcomes, and helps reduce costs to the patient and the health care system. Health care expenses are crippling families, businesses and governments. We need to carefully examine the type of health care provided and the way it is administered. The Choosing Wisely campaign does just that.

American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine


The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) is the professional organization for physicians specializing in hospice and palliative medicine. The Academy’s 5,000 members also include nurses and other health care providers committed to improving quality of life for seriously ill patients and their families. AAHPM is pleased to support the goals of the Choosing Wisely® campaign. Academy members believe that palliative care providers and organizations, including hospices, will be essential to the success of any efforts designed to enhance health care quality, coordination and efficiency, particularly for high-need, high-cost patients with serious illness. Studies have demonstrated that high-quality palliative care and hospice care not only improve quality of life and patient and family satisfaction, but achieve these outcomes at a lower cost than usual care, by helping patients to better understand and address their needs, choose the most effective interventions, and avoid unnecessary or unwanted hospitalizations and interventions. For more information, find AAHPM on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Visit AAHPM’s blog or patient site,

American Academy of Neurology

The American Academy of Neurology, the world’s largest association of neurologists with more than 25,000 members, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care and enhance member career satisfaction. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, brain injury, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. As part of our commitment to helping neurologists provide the most appropriate, cost-effective, evidence-based care, the American Academy of Neurology is pleased to support the Choosing Wisely® campaign, as it promotes wise choices by physicians and patients with the ultimate goal of improving health care outcomes through patient-centered care that avoids unnecessary interventions and helps to reduce the rapidly expanding costs of the health care system. The Choosing Wisely campaign also aligns with the Academy’s commitment to the rigorous development of clinical practice guidelines, quality measures and quality improvement programs. For more information, find the American Academy of Neurology on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and YouTube.

American Academy of Nursing

The American Academy of Nursing is pleased to lead the nursing profession’s efforts to participate in Choosing Wisely®. Nurses can contribute to a national effort to help patients, clinicians and systems make wise choices about health care. As the largest group of health professionals and with the most contact with patients and families, nurses are in a significant position to influence decisions about health and health care. Nurses influence quality, cost, and waste through a number of mechanisms, such as engaging in practices that are evidence-based, contributing to decisions about the need for tests and treatments, and observing or contributing to system waste and inefficiency. This is particularly important in areas that contribute substantially to total health care costs, such as falls, delirium, medical error prevention, medication management, care coordination, pain management, and appropriate use of services aligned with changing needs (i.e., palliative and hospice care). Nurses are instrumental in shaping health care practices and redesigning health care systems. With this in mind, the American Academy of Nursing has joined Choosing Wisely and is working to engage in conversations with a broad coalition of stakeholder groups and individuals to identify nursing practices that are unnecessary, inefficient, or harmful; describe the supporting evidence for minimizing these practices; make clear recommendations regarding the use of these practices; and disseminate these recommendations to nurses, health care administrators, the public, and other stakeholders. Ultimately, we will be helping to extend the conversation about wise use of resources and helpful practices to  various disciplines and professions.

American Academy of Ophthalmology

The American Academy of Ophthalmology is the world’s largest association of eye physicians and surgeons. The Academy and its 32,000 members worldwide are committed to advancing the highest standards of comprehensive eye care. To accomplish this, the Academy provides a wide variety of educational programs, products and services to ophthalmologists and the patients they serve. The Academy’s EyeSmart® program provides the public with the most trustworthy and medically accurate information about eye diseases, conditions and injuries. The Academy believes an open dialogue between ophthalmologists and their patients is essential to providing the right eye care at the right time. These conversations lead to better-educated patients who are able to make informed vision-care decisions, reducing safety risks from unnecessary tests and procedures and promoting cost savings. The Academy’s participation in the Choosing Wisely® campaign further fosters communications between ophthalmologists and their patients.

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) is proud to be a partner in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. As the premier provider of education for orthopaedic surgeons and allied health professionals, the Academy champions the interests of patients and advances the highest quality of bone and joint health. The more than 37,000 orthopaedic surgeon members aim to increase people’s quality of life by improving mobility, reducing pain, and returning patients to their jobs and hobbies. The AAOS has been a leader in developing quality improvement and safety programs—from the “Sign Your Site” campaign aimed at eliminating wrong-site surgery to the introduction of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and appropriate use criteria to enhance the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. By partnering in the Choosing Wisely campaign, the AAOS hopes to facilitate dialogue between patients and physicians about appropriately using diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and avoiding those that are unnecessary.

American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

The American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS), one of the oldest medical associations in the nation, represents nearly 12,000 physicians and allied health professionals who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ears, nose, throat and related structures of the head and neck. The AAO-HNS Foundation is pleased to partner with the Choosing Wisely® campaign. We are enthusiastic about the potential to address in a very practical manner ways to reduce waste, improve quality care, and engage physicians and their patients in making better health care choices. Choosing Wisely complements the Foundation’s quality agenda that focuses on empowering physicians to provide the best patient care through the development of evidence-based guidelines, identifying tools, services, and processes that lead to safe care in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery.

American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is a strong supporter of partnerships that improve the quality of care for patients. The Choosing Wisely® campaign helps to raise awareness of the need to evaluate tests and treatments thoughtfully. This is particularly important when treating children because they are still growing and developing. The AAP believes that health care for children, in addition to being delivered in a patient-centered medical home, should be evidence-based or informed, efficient and based on quality improvement measures relevant to the pediatric population. The AAP also encourages patient and family engagement in promoting their child’s well-being. These hallmarks of the patient-centered medical home are integral to the Choosing Wisely campaign.

The American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

The American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R) is proud to be a partner in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. AAPM&R is the national medical society representing more than 8,000 physiatrists, physicians who are specialists in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Physiatrists treat adults and children with acute and chronic pain, persons who have experienced catastrophic events resulting in paraplegia, quadriplegia, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, limb amputations, rheumatologic conditions, musculoskeletal injuries, and individuals with neurologic disorders or any other disease process that results in impairment and/or disability. With appropriate rehabilitation, many patients can regain significant function, live independently, and lead fulfilling lives.

By partnering in the Choosing Wisely campaign, AAPM&R hopes that patients will initiate discussions with their physicians.

American Academy of Sleep Medicine

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is proud to partner with the ABIM Foundation in the Choosing Wisely® campaign. Established in 1975, the AASM has a combined membership of nearly 11,000 physicians, scientists, allied health care providers and accredited sleep centers. As the leader in setting standards and fostering excellence in sleep medicine, the AASM is committed to improving sleep health and promoting high quality, patient-centered care through collaborative relationships between board-certified sleep medicine physicians, primary care providers and other specialists. The Choosing Wisely® campaign is a natural extension of our organization’s ongoing efforts to improve quality of care, and it will help guide patients and physicians toward making the best choices for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep diseases.