American Academy of Pediatrics – Section on Emergency Medicine and the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians

View all recommendations from this society

December 1, 2022

Do not obtain radiographs in children with bronchiolitis, croup, asthma, or first-time wheezing.

Respiratory illnesses are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department (ED) visits, with wheezing being a frequently encountered clinical finding. For children presenting with first-time wheezing or with typical findings of asthma, bronchiolitis, or croup, radiographs rarely yield important positive findings and expose patients to radiation, increased cost of care, and prolonged ED length of stay. National and international guidelines emphasize the value of the history and physical examination in making an accurate diagnosis and excluding serious underlying pathology. Radiography performed in the absence of significant findings has been shown to be associated with overuse of antibiotics. Radiographs should not be routinely obtained in these situations unless findings such as significant hypoxia, focal abnormalities, prolonged course of illness, or severe distress are present. If wheezing is occurring without a clear atopic etiology or without upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (eg, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and/or fever), appropriate diagnostic imaging should be considered on a case-by-case basis.


These items are provided solely for informational purposes and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a medical professional. Patients with any specific questions about the items
on this list or their individual situation should consult their physician.

How The List Was Created

The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine (AAP SOEM) Committee on Quality Transformation (COQT) assembled a task force to oversee the creation of a Pediatric Emergency Medicine Choosing Wisely list. The task force first collected suggested recommendations from a diverse group of ED providers (physicians, nurses, and advanced practice providers) from six academic pediatric EDs to gather an initial list of frequently overused and/or avoidable tests and interventions. Task force members independently scored these items on an anchored rating scale based on each item’s frequency of overuse in a typical ED shift, the evidence for lack of efficacy, and the potential harm associated with overuse. The scores were discussed, and consensus was reached for the top 25 ranked items. Next, this list of 25 proposed items was sent to all COQT members in a survey format. The COQT member survey respondents selected which 10 items they believed should be included in the Choosing Wisely list. The task force then ranked the selected items based on the frequency of selection by COQT members. The five top-ranked items that were not duplicative of items on other subspecialty Choosing Wisely lists were submitted and approved by AAP SOEM leadership. The list of five final items with summary evidence was subsequently forwarded for peer review to relevant expert AAP Committee, Council, and Section leadership. The AAP Board of Directors and Executive Committee granted final approval of this list.

Sources

Ralston SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC, et al. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. 2014;134(5):e1474-e1502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2742

Trottier ED, Chan K, Allain D, Chauvin-Kimoff L. Managing an acute asthma exacerbation in children. Paediatr Child Health. 2021;26(7):438-439. DOI: 10.1093/pch/pxab058

Shah SN, Bachur RG, Simel DL, Neuman MI. Does this child have pneumonia? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2017;318(5):462-471. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.9039

Schuh S, Lalani A, Allen U, et al. Evaluation of the utility of radiography in acute bronchiolitis. J Pediatr. 2007;150(4):429-433. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.01.005

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Expert Panel Report 4: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma; National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Third Expert Panel on the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2007:391