Don’t perform axillary lymph node dissection for clinical stages I and II breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes without attempting sentinel node biopsy.
Sentinel node biopsy is proven effective at staging the axilla for positive lymph nodes and is proven to have fewer short and long term side effects, and in particular is associated with a markedly lower risk of lymphedema (permanent arm swelling).
When the sentinel lymph node(s) are negative for cancer, no axillary dissection should be performed.
When one or two sentinel nodes are involved with cancer that is not extensive in the node, the patient received breast conserving surgery and is planned to receive whole breast radiation and stage appropriate systemic therapy, axillary node dissection should not be performed.
Avoid the routine use of “whole-body” diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients with minor or single system trauma.
Aggressive use of “whole-body” CT scanning improves early diagnosis of injury and may even positively impact survival in polytrauma patients. However, the significance of radiation exposure as well as costs associated with these studies must be considered, especially in patients with low energy mechanisms of injury and absent physical examination findings consistent with major trauma.
Avoid colorectal cancer screening tests on asymptomatic patients with a life expectancy of less than 10 years and no family or personal history of colorectal neoplasia.
Screening for colorectal cancer has been shown to reduce the mortality associated with this common disease; colonoscopy provides the opportunity to detect and remove adenomatous polyps, the precursor lesion to many cancers, thereby reducing the incidence of the disease later in life.
However, screening and surveillance modalities are inappropriate when the risks exceed the benefit.
The risk of colonoscopy increases with increasing age and comorbidities.
The risk/benefit ratio of colorectal cancer screening or surveillance for any patient should be individualized based on the results of previous screening examinations, family history, predicted risk of the intervention, life expectancy and patient preference.
Avoid admission or preoperative chest x-rays for ambulatory patients with unremarkable history and physical exam.
Performing routine admission or preoperative chest X-rays is not recommended for ambulatory patients without specific reasons suggested by the history and/or physical examination findings. Only 2 percent of such images lead to a change in management. Obtaining a chest radiograph is reasonable if acute cardiopulmonary disease is suspected or there is a history of chronic stable cardiopulmonary diseases in patients older than age 70 who has not had chest radiography within six months.
Don’t do computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in children until after ultrasound has been considered as an option.
Although CT is accurate in the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in the pediatric population, ultrasound is the preferred initial consideration for imaging examination in children. If the results of the ultrasound exam are equivocal, it may be followed by CT. This approach is cost-effective, reduces potential radiation risks and has excellent accuracy, with reported sensitivity and specificity of 94 percent in experienced hands. Recognizing that expertise may vary, strategies including improving diagnostic expertise in community based ultrasound and the development of evidence-based clinical decision rules are realistic goals in improving diagnosis without the use of CT scan.
These items are provided solely for informational purposes and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a medical professional. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their physician.
The American College of Surgeons is a scientific and educational organization of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to raise the standards of surgical practice and to improve the quality of care for surgical patients. The College is dedicated to the ethical and competent practice of surgery. Its achievements have significantly influenced the course of scientific surgery in America and have established it as an important advocate for all surgical patients. The College has more than 79,000 members and is the largest organization of surgeons in the world. For more information, visit www.facs.org.
The American College of Surgeons (ACS) solicited recommendations for the ABIM Foundation’s Choosing Wisely® campaign from the Commission on Cancer, Committee on Trauma, and the Advisory Councils for Colon and Rectal Surgery, General Surgery, and Pediatric Surgery. The committees were provided with a description of the campaign’s initiative, a link to the Choosing Wiselywebsite, and published recommendations from organizations already participating in the campaign were referenced and reviewed during discussions. All of the recommendations collected from the ACS committees were reviewed, and five items were identified. The ACS’ disclosure and conflict of interest policy can be found at www.facs.org.
Participating ACS Committees:
Advisory Council for Colon and Rectal Surgery
- Chair: Thomas E. Read, MD, FACS, Burlington, MA
Advisory Council for General Surgery
- Chair: E. Christopher Ellison, MD, FACS, Columbus, OH
Advisory Council for Pediatric Surgery
- Chair: Mary E. Fallat, MD, FACS, Louisville, KY
- Immediate Past Chair: Thomas F. Tracy Jr., MD, FACS, Providence, RI
Commission on Cancer
- Chair: Daniel P. McKellar, MD, FACS, Greenville, OH
Committee on Trauma
- Chair: Michael F. Rotondo, MD, FACS, Greenville, NC
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Giuliano AE, Hunt KK, Ballman KV, Beitsch PD, Whitworth PW, Blumencranz PW, Leitch AM, Saha S, McCall LM, Morrow M. Axillary dissection vs. no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2011 Feb 9;305(6):569-5.
Ashikaga T, Krag DN, Land SR, Julian TB, Anderson SJ, Brown AM, Skelly JM, Harlow SP, Weaver DL, Mamounas EP, Costantino JP, Wolmark N; National Surgical Adjuvant Breast, Bowel Project. Morbidity results for the NSABP B-32 trial comparing sentinel lymph node dissection versus axillary dissection. J Surg Oncol. 2010 Aug 1;102(2):111-8.
Giuliano AE, Hawes D, Ballman KV, Whitworth PW, Blumencranz PW, Reintgen DS, Morrow M, Leitch AM, Hunt KK, McCall LM, Abati A, Cote R. Association of occult metastases in sentinel lymph nodes and bone marrow with survival among women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. JAMA. 2011 Jun 27;306(4):385-393.
Weaver DL, Ashikaga T, Krag DN, Skelly JM, Anderson SJ, Harlow SP, Julian TB, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Effect of occult metastases on survival in node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 3;364(5):412-421.
Huber-Wagner S, Lefering R, Qvick LM, Körner M, Kay MV, Pfeifer KJ, Reiser M, Mutschler W, Kanz KG; Working Group on Polytrauma of the German Trauma Society. Effect of whole-body CT during trauma resuscitation on survival: a retrospective, multicentre study. Lancet. 2009 Apr 25;373(9673):1455-61.
Stengel D, Ottersbach C, Matthes G, Weigeldt M, Grundei S, Rademacher G, Tittel A, Mutze S, Ekkernkamp A, Frank M, Schmucker U, Seifert J.Accuracy of single-pass whole-body computed tomography for detection of injuries in patients with blunt major trauma. CMAJ. 2012 May 15;184(8):869-76.
Ahmadinia K, Smucker JB, Nash CL, Vallier HA. Radiation exposure has increased in trauma patients over time. J Trauma. 2012 Feb;72(2):410-5.
Winslow JE, Hinshaw JW, Hughes MJ, Williams RC, Bozeman WP. Quantitative assessment of diagnostic radiation doses in adult blunt trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug;52(2):93-7.
Lieberman DA, Rex DK, Winawer SJ, Giardiello FM, Johnson DA, Levin TR; United States Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance after screening and polypectomy: a consensus update by the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012;143(3):844-57.
Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Mariotto AB, Meekins A, Topor M, Brown ML, Ransohoff DF. Adverse events after outpatient colonoscopy in the Medicare population. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(12):849-57.
U.S. Preventative Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(9)627-37.
Qaseem A, Denberg TD, Hopkins RH, Humphrey LL, Levine J, Sweet DE, Shekelle P; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Screening for colorectal cancer; a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(5);378-86.
Mohammed TL, Kirsch J, Amorosa JK, Brown K, Chung JH, Dyer DS, Ginsburg ME, Heitkamp DE, Kanne JP, Kazerooni EA, Ketai LH, Ravenel JG, Saleh AG, Shah RD, Expert Panel on Thoracic Imaging. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® routine admission and preoperative chest radiography [Internet]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR). 2011. 6 p.
Gomez-Gil E, Trilla A, Corbella B, Fernández-Egea E, Luburich P, de Pablo J, Ferrer Raldúa J, Valdés M. Lack of clinical relevance of routine chest radiography in acute psychiatric admissions. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2002;24(2):110-3.
Archer C, Levy AR, McGregor M. Value of routine preoperative chest x-rays: a meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 1993;40(11):1022-7.
Munro J, Booth A, Nicholl J. Routine preoperative testing: a systematic review of the evidence. Health Technol Assess. 1997;1(12):i-iv:1-62.
Grier DJ, Watson LF, Harnell GG, Wilde P. Are routine chest radiographs prior to angiography of any value? Clin Radiol. 1993;48(2):131-3.
Gupta SD, Gibbins FJ, Sen I. Routine chest radiography in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1985;14(1):11-4.
Amorosa JK, Bramwit MP, Mohammed TL, Reddy GP, Brown K, Dyer DS, Ginsburg ME, Heitkamp DE, Jeudy J, Kirsch J, MacMahon H, Ravenel JG, Saleh AG, Shah RD, Expert Panel on Thoracic Imaging. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® routine chest radiographs in ICU patients. [Internet]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR); 2011. 6 p.
Wan MJ, Krahn M, Ungar WJ, Caku E, Sung L, Medina LS, Doria AS. Acute appendicitis in young children: cost-effectiveness of US versus CT in diagnosis-a Markov decision analytic model. Radiology. 2009;250:378-86.
Doria AS, Moineddin R, Kellenberger CJ, Epelman M, Beyene J, Schuh S, Babyn PS, Dick PT. US or CT for diagnosis of appendicitis in children? A meta-analysis. Radiology. 2006;241:83-94.
Garcia K, Hernanz-Schulman M, Bennett DL, Morrow SE, Yu C, Kan JH. Suspected appendicitis in children: diagnostic importance of normal abdominopelvic CT findings with nonvisualized appendix. Radiology. 2009;250:531-7.
Krishnamoorthi R, Ramarajan N, Wang NE, Newman B, Rubesova E, Mueller CM, Barth RA. Effectiveness of a staged US and CT protocol for the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis: reducing radiation exposure in the age of ALARA. Radiology. 2011;259:231-9.
Rosen MP, Ding A, Blake MA, Baker ME, Cash BD, Fidler JL, Grant TH, Greene FL, Jones B, Katz DS, Lalani T, Miller FH, Small WC, Spottswood S, Sudakoff GS, Tulchinsky M, Warshauer DM, Yee J, Coley BD, Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® right lower quadrant pain — suspected appendicitis. [Internet]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR); 2010. 7 p.
Frush DP, Frush KS, Oldham KT. Imaging of acute appendicitis in children: EU versus US or US versus CT? A North American perspective. Pediatr Radiolol. 2009;39(5):500-5.
Saito JM, Yan Y, Evashwick TW, Warner BW, Tarr PI. Use and accuracy of diagnostic imaging by hospital type in pediatric appendicitis. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):e37-44.
Kharbanda AB, Stevenson MD, Macias CG, Sinclair K, Dudley NC, Bennett J, Bajaj L, Mittal MK, Huang C, Bachur RG, Dayan PS, and for the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Interrater reliability of clinical findings in children with possible appendicitis. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):695-700.